Children with Language Impairments: An Introduction
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Preserved Abilities. Impaired Abilities. Special Considerations. Intervention Approaches. Age of Onset of Hearing Loss and its Effects. Stability of Hearing Loss. Other Contributing Factors and their Effects. Parental Hearing Status. Early Identification. Concomitant Deficits. Background Noise. Speech Production and Intelligibility. Technology Aids and Sound Amplification Systems. Hispanic-American Children. African-American Children.
Asian-American Children. Native American Children. Poverty in the U. Culture of Poverty. Testing Bias. Differential Diagnosis of Communicative Behaviors. Intervention for Language Differences and Language Disorders. Intervention for Language Differences. Types of Acquired Brain Injury. Early Recovery and Language Impairment. Later Recovery and Residual Language Impairment.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Behavior Disorders. Returning to School. An Overview of Giftedness. Language Characteristics of Gifted Children. Language in Disadvantaged or Disabled Gifted Children. Implications for Intervention. An Overview of Visual Impairment. Language Characteristics of Blind Children. Children with Cerebral Palsy. Communication of Other Children with Neuromotor Impairment.here
Can children with language impairments learn two languages?
An Overview of Cleft Palate. Language Characteristics of Children with Cleft Palate. An Overview and Definitions. Multimodal Communication. Multidisciplinary Teams. Children with Challenging Behavior. Children with Language Impairments.
Children with Autism. Children with Intellectual Disabilities. Children with Acquired Language Disorders. Children with Physical Disabilities. Children who are Temporarily Unable to Speak. Sign and Gesture. Facilitated Communication. Language and Speech Development.
Literacy Acquisition. Determining if a Child Qualifies for Services.
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Deciding if a Child has a Language Problem. Identifying the Cause of the Problem. Identifying Deficit Areas. Describing the Regularities in the Child's Language. Deciding What to Recommend. Gathering Information from Others. What to Assess. Methods of Assessment. Normal versus Not so Normal Processes. Developmental and Nondevelopmental Intervention.
Affiliated Professor, Psychology Department
Rules and Regularities. Comprehension or Production. Focus of Intervention and Picking Intervention Targets. Usefulness of Intervention Content. Reinforcement and Generalization. Child Characteristics. Multiple Exposures. Distributed versus Massed Trials. Suprasegmental and Rate Variations. Input Modality Variations. Response Dialogues. Direct and Indirect Intervention. Group and Individual Intervention.
Three Language Teaching Methods. Service Delivery Models. Pearson offers special pricing when you package your text with other student resources. If you're interested in creating a cost-saving package for your students, contact your Pearson rep. Vicki A. Until retiring in , Dr. She has numerous publications and presentations in the area. We're sorry! We don't recognize your username or password. Please try again. Tombin et al. Assessment will usually include an interview with the child's caregiver, observation of the child in an unstructured setting, a hearing test, and standardized tests of language and nonverbal ability.
There is a wide range of language assessments in English. Assessments that can be completed by a parent or teacher can be useful to identify children who may require more in-depth evaluation. Informal assessments, such as language samples, may also be used. This procedure is useful when the normative sample of a given test is inappropriate for a given child, for instance, if the child is bilingual and the sample was of monolingual children. It is also an ecologically valid measure of all aspects of language e.
To complete a language sample, the SLP will spend about 15 minutes talking with the child.
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The sample may be of a conversation Hadley, , or narrative retell. In a narrative language sample, the SLP will tell the child a story using a wordless picture book e. Frog Where Are You? Language samples are typically transcribed using computer software such as the systematic analysis of language software SALT, Miller et al.
For example, the SLP might look for whether the child introduces characters to their story or jumps right in, whether the events follow a logical order, and whether the narrative includes a main idea or theme and supporting details. However, neither study adopted the stringent "discrepancy" criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or ICD ; SLI was diagnosed if the child scored below cut-off on standardized language tests, but had a nonverbal IQ of 90 or above and no other exclusionary criteria.
SLI is associated with a high rate of psychiatric disorder. Better outcomes are found for children who have milder difficulties and do not require special educational provision. It is now generally accepted that SLI is a strongly genetic disorder. Two twins growing up together are exposed to the same home environment, yet may differ radically in their language skills. Such different outcomes are, however, seen almost exclusively in fraternal non-identical twins, who are genetically different.
Identical twins share the same genes and tend to be much more similar in language ability. There can be some variation in the severity and persistence of SLI in identical twins, indicating that environmental factors affect the course of disorder, but it is unusual to find a child with SLI who has an identical twin with normal language. SLI is not usually caused by a mutation in a single gene.
Current evidence suggests that there are many different genes that can influence language learning, and SLI results when a child inherits a particularly detrimental combination of risk factors, each of which may have only a small effect. Only a handful of non-genetic factors have been found selectively to impact on language development in children. Later-born children in large families are at greater risk than earlier born. Overall, genetic mutation, hereditary influences, and environmental factors may all have a role in the development and manifestation of SLI.
Speech or Language Impairments
It is important, therefore, to not associate the development to a single factor, but recognize that it is oftentimes the result of complex interactions between any or all of these factors. Much research has focused on trying to identify what makes language learning so hard for some children.
A major divide is between theories that attribute the difficulties to a low-level problem with auditory temporal processing,   and those that propose there is a deficit in a specialised language-learning system. It has also been suggested that SLI may only arise when more than one underlying deficit is present. Males are more affected by SLI than females. In clinical samples, the sex ratio of affected males: females is around 3 or Poor motor skills are commonly found in children with SLI. Differences in the brains of children with SLI vs typically developing children are subtle and may overlap with atypical patterns seen in other neurodevelopmental disorders.
Intervention is usually carried out by speech and language therapists, who use a wide range of techniques to stimulate language learning. In the past, there was a vogue for drilling children in grammatical exercises, using imitation and elicitation methods, but such methods fell into disuse when it became apparent that there was little generalisation to everyday situations.
Contemporary approaches to enhancing development of language structure are more likely to adopt 'milieu' methods, in which the intervention is interwoven into natural episodes of communication, and the therapist builds on the child's utterances, rather than dictating what will be talked about.
In addition, there has been a move away from a focus solely on grammar and phonology toward interventions that develop children's social use of language , often working in small groups that may include typically developing as well as language-impaired peers. Another way in which modern approaches to remediation differ from the past is that parents are more likely to be directly involved, particularly with preschool children.
A radically different approach has been developed by Tallal and colleagues, who have devised a computer-based intervention, Fast Forword , that involves prolonged and intensive training on specific components of language and auditory processing. For all these types of intervention, there are few adequately controlled trials that allow one to assess clinical efficacy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Auditory processing disorder Dual-route hypothesis to reading aloud Dyslexia Language delay Language processing Linguistics Origin of speech Pragmatic language impairment Speech-Language Pathology Speech sound disorder Tip of the tongue.
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Brookes Publishing Company. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Classification of developmental language disorders: theoretical issues and clinical implications. Hillsdale, N.
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Int J Lang Commun Disord. Children's speech and literacy difficulties: a psycholinguistic framework. San Diego, Calif: Singular Pub. Pragmatic language impairment: a correlate of SLI, a distinct subgroup, or part of the autistic continuum? Leonard Eds. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. Neurodevelopmental disorders: conceptual approaches. Rutter, D. Bishop, D. Pine, S. Scott, J. Stevenson, E. Thapar Eds. Oxford: Blackwell. Psychol Bull. Specific language impairment, dyslexia, and autism: Using genetics to unravel their relationship. Norbury, J. Bishop Eds. Hove: Psychology Press. J Speech Hear Res.