The Flood: (ebook Edition) (Gr 9-10 1951 1957)

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Hence, in order that the cinema may remain a worthy instrument by which men can be guided towards salvation, raised to higher things, and become really better, 36 it is absolutely necessary for each of those groups just referred to, exercising a true sense of responsibility, to cooperate readily with each other to produce and distribute films which can win approval.

To all those who practise vigilance and act intelligently concerning film shows, We have already more than once made clear the seriousness of the subject, while exhorting them to produce, in particular, the kind of "ideal film" which can certainly contribute to a well balanced education. Do you, Venerable Brethren, take a special interest in seeing that, through the individual National Offices, which must be subject to your authority, and about which We have written above, there shall be imparted to the various classes of interested citizens information on the matters to be viewed, - the advice and the directives by which, in accordance with the different times and circumstances, this most noble art, which can so much help the good of souls, may be as far as possible advanced.

For this purpose, "let tables or lists be composed and printed in a definite arrangement, in which films distributed will, as frequently as possible, be listed so as to come to the notice of all"; 38 and let this be done by a Committee of reliable men, which will depend on each of your National Offices. These men, of course, should be outstanding for their doctrine and practical prudence since they have to pass judgment on each film according to the rules of Christian morality. We most earnestly exhort the members of this Committee to devote in a suitable manner to these topics, deep and prolonged study and devout prayer; for they have to deal with a most important matter which is closely bound up with the Christian concept of life, and consequently,they must have a sound knowledge of that power which is exerted by the cinema, and which varies according to the different circumstances of the spectators.

As often as they have to judge the moral aspect of a cinema programme, they should attentively revise within themselves those directives already many times given by Us, as occasion offered; and particularly when We spoke of the "ideal film", of the points which concern religion, and at the same time of representation of evil deeds: it should never ignore or be opposed to human dignity, to the modesty of the home surroundings, to holiness of life, to the Church of Jesus Christ, to human and civil types of association. Moreover, let them remember that the task allowed to them of classifying and passing judgment on each film programme, aims especially at giving clear and appropriate guidance to public opinion, with the intention of leading all to value highly the rules and principles of morality, without which the right development of minds and true civilization become meaningless terms.

Unquestionably, therefore, one must repudiate the manner of acting of those who, from excessive indulgence, admit films which, for all their technical brilliance, nevertheless offend right morals; or, though they appear on the surface to conform to the moral laws, yet contain something which is contrary to the Catholic Faith. But if they have clearly and publicly indicated which films can be seen by all, by the young, by adults; and those, on the other hand, which are a moral danger to the spectators; and finally, those which are entirely bad and harmful, then each will be able to attend those films only, from which "they will come out with minds happier, freer and better"; 39 and they will be able to avoid those which can be harmful to them, and doubly so, of course, when they will have been a means of gain for traffickers in evil things, and given bad example to others.

Repeating the timely instructions which Our predecessor of happy memory, Pius XI, published in his Encyclical Letter, entitled Vigilanti Cura , 40 We earnestly desire that Christians be not only warned with care, as frequently as possible, on this topic, but that they fulfil the grave obligation of acquainting themselves with the decisions issued by Ecclesiastical Authority on matters connected with Motion Pictures, and of faithfully obeying them.

The Bishops, if they deem it appropriate, will be able to set aside a special day each year devoted to this matter, on which the faithful will be carefully instructed concerning their duty, particularly with regard to Film shows, and urged to offer earnest prayers to God about the same. To make it easy for all to be familiar with these decisions and to obey them, these directives, together with a short commentary on them, must be published at some suitable time, and distributed as widely as possible.

To this end, Catholic Film critics can have much influence; they ought to set the moral issue of the plots in its proper light, defending those judgments which will act as a safeguard against falling into so-called "relative morality", or the overthrow of that right order in which the lesser issues yield place to the more important. Quite wrong, therefore, is the action of writers in daily papers and in reviews, claiming to be Catholic, if, when dealing with shows of this kind, they do not instruct their readers concerning the moral position to be adopted. There is a duty of conscience binding the spectators who, each time they buy a ticket of admission, - as it were casting a vote - make choice of good or bad motion pictures; a similar duty, and even more so, binds those who manage movie theatres or distribute the films.

We are well aware of the magnitude of the difficulties which today confront those engaged in the Motion Picture industry because of - in addition to other considerations - the great increase in the use of television. Yet, even when confronted by these difficult circumstances, they must remember that they are forbidden in conscience to present film programmes which are contrary to the Faith and sound morals, or to enter into contracts by which they are forced to present shows of this kind.

But since in many countries, men engaged in this industry have bound themselves not to exhibit, for any consideration, film programmes which might be harmful or evil, We trust that the excellent initiative will spread to all parts of the world, and that no catholic in cinema management will hesitate to follow such sane and salutary proposals.

We must also utter a vigorous warning against the display of commercial posters which ensnare or give scandal, even though, as sometimes happens, such publicity refers to decent films. Consequently, in cinema halls subject to ecclesiastical authority, since there have to be provided for the faithful, and particularly for the young, shows which are suitable to upright training and in keeping with the surroundings, it is clear that only those films may be exhibited which are entirely beyond reproach. Let the Bishops, keeping a watchful eye on these halls, - including those of exempt religious, - to which the public has access, warn all ecclesiastics on whom the responsibility falls, to observe faithfully and exactly the rules laid down in these matters, and let them not be too much taken up with their personal advantage if they wish to play their part in this ministry which the Holy See considers of the highest importance.

We especially advise those who control these Catholic halls, to group themselves together - as, with Our full approval and consent, has been done in a number of places - the more effectively to put into practice the recommendations of the respective National Offices, and support common advantages and policies. The counsel which We have given to theatre managers We wish to apply also to the distributors who, since they sometimes contribute financially to the making of the actual films, have obviously a greater opportunity and, consequently, are bound by a more serious obligation, of giving their support to reputable films.

For distribution cannot be in any sense reckoned as a technical function of the business, since films - as We have often stated - are not only to be regarded as articles for sale, but also, and this is more important, to be considered as food for the mind and, as it were, a means of spiritual and moral training for the ordinary people. So distributors and hirers share to the same degree in merit and responsibility according as something good or evil results from the screen.

Since, therefore, there is question of bringing the Motion Picture industry into line with sounder policies, that is no slight responsibility which rests on the actors; they, indeed, remembering their dignity as human beings and as experienced artists, should know that they are not permitted to lend their talents to parts in plays, or to be connected with the making of films, which are contrary to sound morals. But an actor, having gained a famous name by his talent and skill, ought to use that renown which he has justly won in such a way that he inspires the mind of the public with noble sentiments; in particular, he should remember to give a notable example of virtue to others in his private life.

When addressing professional actors on one occasion in the past, We made this assertion: "Everyone can see that, in the presence of a throng of people listening open-mouthed to your words, appauding and shouting, your own feelings are stirred and filled with a certain joy and exaltation". But the heaviest responsibility - though for a different reason - falls on the directors and producers. The awareness of this burden is not an obstacle to noble undertakings, but rather ought to strengthen the minds of those who, endowed with good will, are influential by reason of their money or natural talent in the production of films.

In addition, it often happens that film producers and directors meet a serious difficulty when the circumstances and demands of their art come into contact with the precepts of religion and the moral law. In that case, before the film is printed, or while it is being produced, some competent advice should be sought and a sound plan adopted to provide for both the spiritual good of the spectators and the perfection of the work itself.

Let these men not hesitate to consult the local established Catholic Motion Pictures Office, which will readily come to their assistance by delegating some qualified ecclesiastical adviser to look after the business, should this be necessary, and so long as due precautions are observed. And the result of this confidence which they place in the Church, will not be a lessening of their authority or popularity; "for the Faith, until the end of time, will be the bulwark of the human person" 44 and in the production of the works themselves, the human person will be enriched and perfected in the light of Christian teaching and correct moral principles.

Nevertheless, ecclesiastics are not permitted to offer their cooperation to film directors without the express consent of their superiors, since, obviously, to give sound advice in this matter, special excellence in the art and a more than ordinary training are essential, and a decision on these cannot be left to the whim of individuals. We therefore give a fatherly warning to Catholic film directors and producers, not to permit films to be made which are opposed to the Faith or Christian morals; but if, - which God forbid - this should happen, it is the duty of the Bishops to admonish them, and, if necessary, to impose appropriate sanctions.

But We are convinced that, to bring the Motion Pictures to the heights of the "ideal film", nothing is more effective than for those engaged in film production to act in conformity with the commandments of Christian law. Let those responsible for making films approach the sources from which all the highest gifts flow, let them master the Gospel teaching, and make themselves familiar with the Church's traditional doctrine on the certainties of life, on happiness and virtue, on sorrow and sin, on body and soul, on social problems and human desires; they will then obtain new and excellent plots which they may adopt, and they will feel themselves inspired by a fresh enthusiasm to produce works of lasting value.

Those initiatives and practices, therefore, must be encouraged and extended by which their spiritual life is nourished, and given strength and development; but particular attention must here be paid to the christian training of those young people who are planning to enter the cinema world professionally. To conclude these instructions with regard to the Motion Pictures, We urge State officials not on any account to lend support to the production or making available of films of a low type, but, by establishing suitable regulations, to lend their aid to the providing of decent film programmes which can be commended, particularly when they are intended for youth.

When such large sums are being spent on public education, let them direct their attention to this also: that reasonable assistance be given to this matter, which is essentially a part of education. But since in certain countries, and also in international festivals, prizes are established and rightly awarded to those films which are recommended for their educative and spiritual value, We trust that all good and prudent men, following Our counsels, will strive to ensure that the applause and approval of the general public will not be wanting, as a prize for really worthwhile films.

No less carefully do We desire to express to you, Venerable Brethren, the anxiety which besets Us with regard to that other means of communication which was introduced at the same period as the cinema: We refer to Radio. Though it is not endowed to anything like the same extent with scenic properties and other advantages of time and place, as is the cinema industry, sound radio has yet other advantages, not all of which have yet been exploited.

For, as We said to the members and directors of a broadcasting company, "this method of comunication is such that it is, as it were, detached from and unrestricted by conditions of place and time which block or delay all other methods of communication between men. On a kind of winged flight much swifter than sound waves, with the speed of light, it passes in a moment over all frontiers, and delivers the news committed to it". Brought to almost complete perfection by new inventions, wireless telegraphy brings oustanding advantages to technical processes, since, by means of a ray, pilotless machines may be directed to a determined place.

But We rightly think that the most excellent function which falls to Radio is this: to enlighten and instruct men, and to direct their minds and hearts towards higher and spiritual things. But there is in men, though they may be within their own homes, a deep desire to listen to other men, to obtain knowledge of events happening far away, and to share in aspects of the social and cultural life of others. Hence it is not remarkable that a very large number of houses have, within a short period of time, been equipped with receiving sets, by which, as it were through secret windows opening on to the world, contact is made night and day with the active life of men of different civilizations, languages and races.

This is brought about by the countless wireless programmes which cover news, interviews, talks, and items conveying useful and pleasant information derived from public events, the arts, singing, and orchestral music. For as We said recently, "how great is the advantage enjoyed, how great the responsibility laid on men of the present day, and how great the changes from times gone by when instruction in truth, commandments of brotherly love, promises of everlasting happiness, came slowly to men through the Apostles, treading the rough paths of that former age; whereas, in our day, the divine message can be conveyed to tens and hundreds of thousands of men at one and the some time".

It befits Catholics, then, to make use of this privilege of our day, and to draw extensively from the rich fund of doctrine, recreation, art and also of the divine Word, which sound broadcasting brings to them, since they can thus increase and widen their range of interests. Everyone knows what a great contribution good radio programmes can make to sound education; yet from the use of this instrument there arises an obligation in conscience as in the other technical arts, since it can be employed to achieve good or evil.

Those words, then, written in Scripture, can be applied to the art of Radio: "By it we bless God and the Father ; and by it we curse men, who are made after the likeness of God.


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Out of the same mouth proceed blessing and cursing". The first duty of the radio listener is that of choosing carefully and deliberately from the programmes offered; these must not be permitted to enter the home indiscriminately, but access should be given them on the same principles as are observed in a deliberate and prudent invitation to a friend.

A person would act wrongly if he made no selection in introducing friends into his home. So radio programmes which are given entrance there, must be such as encourage truth and goodness, and do not draw members of the family away from the fulfilment of their duty, whether to individuals or to society; they should be such as strengthen them to carry out these duties properly, and, in the case of children and youths, cause no harm, but rather assist and extend the salutary control of parents and teachers.

Let the Catholic Offices for Radio set up in each country, making use of Catholic daily papers and reviews, endeavour to inform the faithful beforehand on the nature and value of the programmes. It will not always be possible to give such advance notice; and often, these will only be summary views, where the content of the programme cannot be known easily beforehand. Parish priests should warn their flocks that they are forbidden by divine law to listen to radio programmes which are dangerous to their Faith or morals, and they should exhort those engaged in the training of youth, to be on the watch and to instill religious principles with regard to the use of radio sets installed in the home.

Moreover, it is the duty of the Bishops to call on the faithful to refrain from listening to stations which are known to broadcast a defence of matter formally opposed to the Catholic Faith. Another duty which binds listeners, is to make known to the directors of the programmes their wishes and justifiable criticism. This obligation arises clearly from the nature of sound radio, which is such that a wholly one-sided policy may come into existence, namely, that directed by the speaker to the listener. Although those systems of surveying public opinion, which are increasing in these days, to find out the degree of interest aroused in the listeners by each programme, are doubtless useful to those who direct the programmes, yet it can happen that popular appreciation, more or less vigorously expressed, can be attributed to trivial or transient causes, or to enthusiasms with no rational basis, so that a judgment of this kind cannot be taken as a sure guide for action.

That being the case, radio listeners ought to rouse themselves to obtain a well-balanced opinion among the general public, by which, while observing proper methods, these programmes are - according to their merits - approved, supported, rebuked, thus bringing it about that the art of Radio, considered as a method of education, "may serve the truth, good morals, justice and love". To bring about this effect is the task of all Catholic societies which are zealous for securing the good of Christians in this matter. But in those countries where local circumstances suggest it, groups of listeners or viewers can be organized for this purpose, under the supervision of the National Motion Pictures, Radio and Television Offices established in each country.

Finally, let listeners to the Radio be aware that they are obliged to encourage reputable programmes, and particularly those by which the mind is directed towards God. In this age in particular, when false and pernicious doctrines are being spread over the air, when, by deliberate "jamming", a kind of aerial "iron curtain" is being created with the express purpose of preventing the entry of truth which would overthrow the empire of atheistic materialism, in this age, We say, when hundreds of thousands of the human race are still looking for the dawning light of the Gospel message, when the sick and others likewise handicapped look forward anxiously to taking part in some manner in the prayers and the ceremonies of the Mass of the Christian community, should not the faithful, especially those who make daily use of the advantages of the Radio, show themselves eager to encourage programmes of this kind?

We are fully aware of the effort already made in some countries, and now being made, to increase the Catholic programmes from Radio stations. Many, from among both clergy and laity, have been in the front of the fight, and by vigorous exertions, have secured for religious radio programmes a place befitting divine worship, which is more important than all human affairs taken together. But in the meantime, while We ponder to what extent Radio can assist the work of the sacred ministry, and while We are moved strongly by the command of our Divine Redeemer, "Going into the whole world, preach the Gospel to every creature", 49 We feel We must exhort you paternally, Venerable Brethren, to strive - according to the need and resources of your respective localities - to increase in number and make more effective programmes dealing with Catholic affairs.

Since a properly dignified presentation of liturgical ceremonies, of the truths of the Catholic Faith, and of events connected with the Church, by means of Radio, obviously demands considerable talent and skill, it is essential that both priests and laymen who are selected for so important an activity should be well trained in suitable methods.

This end would clearly be assisted if, in countries where Catholics employ the latest radio equipment and have day-to-day experience, appropriate study and training courses could be arranged, by means of which learners from other countries also could acquire that skill which is indispensable if radio religious programmes are to attain the best artistic and technical standards.

It will be the function of the National Offices to encourage the various types of religious programmes within their territory and to organize and coordinate them with each other; they will, in addition, offer their cooperation, as far as possible, to the directors of the other Radio stations, due care being observed that nothing creeps into these transmissions contrary to sound morals. With regard to ecclesiastics, including exempt religious, who are engaged in Radio or Television stations, it will be the Bishops' duty to impart suitable directives, the carrying out of which will be committed to the various National Offices.

We should like particularly to speak words of encouragement to Catholic radio stations.

We are fully aware of the almost countless difficulties which have to be faced in this sphere; yet We trust that this apostolic work which We value so highly, will be pursued by them with energy and with mutual collaboration. For Our part, We have arranged for the extension and perfecting of the Vatican Radio Station which has done excellent work for the Church, the salutary activity of which, as We declared to the Catholics of Holland who contributed to it so generously, has well responded to "the ardent desires and the vital needs of the whole Catholic world".

Moreover, We desire to extend Our thanks to all upright directors and producers of radio programmes for their fair assessment of the needs of the Church to which many of them have borne testimony, either by freely assigning a suitable time for the propagation of God's Word, or by supplying the necessary equipment. By this way of acting, they are certainly sharing in the special reward of apostolic work, even though it is being carried out over the air, according to Our Lord's promise: "Who receives a prophet in the name of a prophet, will receive the reward of a prophet".

In these days, technical excellence in radio programmes requires that they be in conformity to the true principles of the art; hence their authors and those engaged in preparing and producing them must be equipped with sound doctrine and a well-stored mind. Consequently, We earnestly invite them also, as We did the members of the Motion Picture industry, to make full use of that superabundance of material from the storehouse of Christian civilization.

Finally, let the bishops remind State officials that it is part of their duty to exercise appropriate diligence in safeguarding the transmission of programmes relating to the Catholic Church, and that special consideration should be given to holy days and to the daily spiritual needs of Christians. It remains, Venerable Brethren, to speak briefly to you about Television, which, in the course of Our Pontificate, has in some nations taken tremendous steps forward, and in others is gradually coming into use. The ever growing development of this art, which beyond all doubt is an event of great importance in human history, has been followed by Us with lively interest and high hopes, but also with serious anxiety; and while on the one hand, We have, from the beginning, praised its potentialities for good and the new advantages springing therefrom, We have also, on the other hand, foreseen and pointed out the dangers, and the excesses of those who misuse it.

There are many characteristics common to both Television and Motion Pictures, for in both, pictures of the movement and the excitement of life are presented to the eye ; often, too, Television material is derived from existing films. Moreover, Television shares, in a sense, in the nature and special power of sound broadcasting, for it is directed towards men in their own homes rather than in theatres. We consider it superfluous in this place to repeat the warnings with regard to film and radio programmes, which We have already given concerning the obligations binding, in this matter, on spectators, listeners, producers and State officials.

Nor need We again refer to the care and diligence which must be observed in the correct preparation and encouragement of the different types of religious programmes. It is well known to Us with what deep interest vast numbers of spectators gaze at television programmes of Catholic events.

It is obvious, of course, - as We declared a few years ago 52 - that to be present at Mass portrayed by Television is not the same as being actually present at the Divine Sacrifice, as is of obligation on holy days. However, from religious ceremonies, as seen on Television, valuable fruits for the strengthening of the Faith and the renewal of fervour can be obtained by all those who, for some reason, are unable to be actually present; consequently, We are convinced that We may wholeheartedly commend programmes of this kind.

In each country, it will be for the Bishops to judge of the suitability of televised religious programmes, and commit their execution to the established Office, which, of course, as in similar matters, will be active and alert to publish information, to instruct the minds of the audience, and to organize and coordinate exerything in a manner in keeping with Christian morals. But Television, besides the common element which it shares with the other two inventions for spreading information, of which We have already spoken, has a power and efficacy of its own.

For, by the art of Television, it is possible for the spectators to grasp by the eye and the ear, events happening far away at the very moment at which they are taking place, and thus to be drawn on, as it were, to take an active part in them; and this sense of immediacy is increased very much by the home surroundings. The population was probably reduced by drought, and recovery was comparatively slow following restoration of flow.

Young-of-the-year and adults were common in collections from riffles at the lower Neosho station from 1 July through 8 July, I obtained only one specimen in intensive collections in the same area on 25, 26, and 27 August. Seemingly the species had moved off shallow riffles into areas not sampled effectively by seining. The sucker-mouthed minnow was common at the middle Marais des Cygnes station but was not taken at the upper and lower stations until , when it was rare.

At the middle and lower Neosho stations this fish increased in abundance from to ; at the upper station, sucker-mouthed minnows were not taken until when collections were made on the White farm. There, the species was common immediately below a low-head dam, but was not taken in extensive collections on the Bosch Farm in The species was most common immediately below riffles, or in other areas having clean gravel bottom in the current.

On 5 June, , many individuals were taken at night p. Young-of-the-year were taken at the lower Neosho station on 24 June, , and commonly thereafter in the summer. In , the rosy-faced shiner was taken rarely at the lower stations on both streams. This species is common in smaller streams tributary to the lower portions of the two rivers, and probably [Pg ] occurs in the mainstream only as "overflow" from tributaries.

Possibly, during drought, rosy-faced shiners found suitable habitat in the mainstream of Neosho and Marais des Cygnes rivers, but re-occupied tributary streams as their flow increased with favorable precipitation, leaving diminishing populations in the mainstream. The red-finned shiner, most abundant at the upper Neosho station, occurred at all stations except the upper Marais des Cygnes. This fish seems to prefer small streams, not highly turbid, having clean, hard bottoms.

It is a pool-dwelling, pelagic species. The blunt-faced shiner was taken only in , at the middle Neosho station, where it was rare. This species, abundant in clear streams tributary to the Neosho River field data, State Biological Survey may have used the mainstream as a refugium during drought. The few specimens obtained in possibly represent a relict population that remained in the mainstream after flow in tributaries was restored by increased rainfall.

The red shiner, abundant in early stage of drought , was consistently the most abundant fish in my collections in the Marais des Cygnes and at the lower and middle Neosho stations. However, the abundance declined from to at the two Neosho stations. At the upper Neosho station the species was fourth in abundance in , and third in and Table The red shiner is pelagic in habit and occurs primarily in pools, though it frequently inhabits adjacent riffles. Collections by seining along a gravel bar at the lower station showed this fish to be most abundant in shallow, quiet water over mud bottom, or at the head of a gravel bar in relatively quiet water.

At the lower end of the gravel bar in water one to four feet deep, with a shallow layer of silt over gravel bottom and a slight eddy-current, red shiners were replaced by ghost shiners or river carpsucker young-of-the-year as the dominant fish. Fifty-nine dyed individuals were released in an eddy at the lower [Pg ] end of a gravel bar at the middle Neosho station on 5 June, Some of these fish still were present in this area when a collection was made 30 hours later.

No colored fish were taken in collections from quiet water at the upper end of the gravel bar. A swift riffle intervening between the latter area and the area of release may have impeded their movement. Forty-six individuals, released at the head of the same gravel bar on 10 June, , immediately swam slowly upstream through quiet water and were soon joined by other minnows.

These fish did not form a well-organized school, but moved about independently, with individuals or groups variously dropping out or rejoining the aggregation until all colored fish disappeared about 50 feet upstream from the point of release. Evidence of inshore movement at night was obtained on 8 June, , in a shallow backwater, having gravel bottom, at the head of a gravel bar at the middle Neosho station.

A collection made in the afternoon contained no red shiners, but they were abundant in the same area after dark. In Kansas, red shiners breed in May, June, and July. Minckley described behavior that apparently was associated with spawning. Because of its abundance, the red shiner is one of the most important forage fishes in Kansas streams, and frequently is used as a bait minnow.

The mimic shiner was taken only rarely at the two lower Neosho stations. This species, like N. Field records of the State Biological Survey indicate that the ghost shiner was common in the mainstream of the lower Neosho River during drought. In , the species was abundant at the lower and middle stations on the Neosho River and at the lower Marais des Cygnes station.

Collections at all stations show that the species has a definite preference for eddies—relatively quiet water, but adjacent to the strong current of the mainstream rather than in backwater remote [Pg ] from the channel. The bottom-type over which the ghost shiner was found varied from mud to gravel or rubble. The sand shiner was taken rarely in the Neosho and commonly in the Marais des Cygnes in In my study the species occurred at all stations, but not until at the upper and lower Neosho stations.

Sand shiners were found with equal frequency in pools and riffles. Spawning takes place in June and July. The mountain minnow was common at the lower and middle Neosho stations throughout the period of study, and increased in abundance from to It was taken only in at the upper Neosho station, where it was rare.

This species does not occur in the Marais des Cygnes River. The largest numbers were found in at the lower Neosho station, where this fish occurred most commonly in moderate current over clean gravel bottom. The mountain minnow, like Hybopsis x-punctata , was common in late June and early July but few were found in late August, The near-absence of this species in collections made in late August is responsible for the apparent slight decline in abundance from to , as shown in Table Metcalf found mountain minnows most commonly in streams of intermediate size in Chautauqua, Cowley and Elk counties, Kansas.

The predilection of this species for permanent waters resulted in an increase in abundance during my study. With continued flow, this species possibly will decrease in abundance in the lower mainstream of the Neosho River. I suspect that the species is, or will be with continued stream-flow , abundant in tributaries of intermediate size in the Neosho River Basin.

The parrot minnow was not taken in the Marais des Cygnes River and was absent at the upper Neosho station until This species was common at the lower and middle Neosho stations throughout the period of study and increased in abundance from to At the lower Neosho station, this fish preferred slow eddy-current over silt bottom, along the downstream portion of a gravel bar.

The parrot minnow was taken less abundantly in the latter part of the summer, , than in early summer, but the decline was less than occurred in the mountain minnow. The blunt-nosed minnow was common, and increased in abundance in both rivers from to The largest numbers were found at the upper Neosho station in , and a large population also was present at the lower Neosho station in Pools having rubble bottom, bedrock, and small areas of mud were preferred at the upper Neosho station. At the lower Neosho station the fish was most common in quiet water at the lower end of a gravel bar.

The parrot minnow also was common in this general area; nevertheless, these two species were seldom numerous in the same seine-haul, indicating segregation of the two. The blunt-nosed minnow was taken frequently in moderate current over clean gravel bottom, especially in late summer, , when P.

The fat-headed minnow was taken at all stations except at the lower one on the Marais des Cygnes, and was most abundant at the upper Neosho station. Intensive seining at the lower Neosho station indicated that this species preferred quiet water and firm mud bottom. In the Neosho River in to , habitats of the species of Pimephales seemed to be as follows: Pimephales tenellus mountain minnow occurred primarily in moderately flowing gravel riffles in the downstream portions of the river.

Pimephales vigilax parrot minnow was mostly in the quiet areas having mud bottom at the downstream end of gravel bars, and less commonly on adjacent riffles, at the lower station. Pimephales notatus blunt-nosed minnow had a wider range of habitats, occurring in quiet areas and moderate currents both upstream and downstream. Pimephales promelas fat-headed minnow occurred throughout both rivers but was most abundant in the quiet water at the uppermost stations.

The stoneroller was most abundant at the upper Neosho station and was not taken at the lower Marais des Cygnes station. This fish increased in abundance from to , but was never common at the middle Marais des Cygnes or the middle and lower Neosho stations. The abundance of channel catfish was greatly reduced as a result of the drought of With the resumption of normal stream-flow in , the small numbers of adult channel catfish present in the stream produced unusually large numbers of young. These young of the year-class, which reached an average size of about nine inches by September , will provide an abundant adult population for several years.

The reduction in number of channel catfish in streams can be related to the changed environment in the drought. When stream levels were low in Tables , fish-populations were crowded into a greatly reduced area. An example of these crowded conditions was observed by Roy Schoonover, Biologist of the Kansas Forestry, Fish and Game Commission, in October, , when he was called to rescue fish near Iola, Kansas. The Neosho River had ceased to flow and a pool less than one acre below the city overflow dam was pumped dry. Schoonover personal communication estimated that 40, fish of all kinds were present in the pool.

About 30, of these were channel catfish, two inches to 14 inches long, with a few larger ones. Fish were removed in the belief that sustained intermittency in the winter of would result in severe winterkill. These conditions almost certainly were prevalent throughout the basin. In addition to winterkill, crowding probably resulted in a reduced rate of reproduction by channel catfish, and by other species as well. This kind of density-dependent reduction of fecundity is known for many species of animals Lack, , ch. In fish, it is probably expressed by complete failure of many individuals to spawn, coupled with scant survival of young produced by the adults that do spawn.

Reproductive failure of channel catfish in farm [Pg ] ponds, especially in clear ponds, is well known, and is often attributed to a paucity of suitable nest-sites Marzolf, ; Davis, In the Neosho and Marais des Cygnes rivers, the intermittent conditions prevalent in the drought resulted in reduced turbidity in the remaining pools.

Many spawning sites normally used by channel catfish were exposed, and others were rendered unsuitable because of the increased clarity of the water. In addition, predation on young channel catfish is increased in clear water Marzolf; Davis, loc. The population was thereby reduced to correspond to the carrying capacity of each pool in the stream bed. The return of normal flow in left large areas unoccupied by fish and the processes described above were reversed. The expanded habitat favored spawning by nearly the entire adult population, and conditions for survival of young were excellent.

As a result, a large hatch occurred in the summer of Several hundred small channel catfish were sometimes taken by use of the shocker a short distance upstream from a foot seine, set in a riffle. Subsequent survival of the year-class has been good. By , few of the catfish spawned in had grown large enough to contribute to the sport fishery, but they are expected to do so in and The year-class was probably the first strong year-class of channel catfish since Davis found that channel catfish in Kansas seldom live longer than seven years.

The year-class reached age seven in The extreme environmental conditions to which these fish were subjected in drought caused a higher mortality than would occur in normal times. The adult population in the two rivers probably was progressively reduced throughout the drought, and the reduction will continue until the strong year-class replenishes it.

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For these reasons, fishing success was poor in Juvenile channel catfish were more abundant in the Neosho than in the Marais des Cygnes in and , although both streams supported sizable populations. In the Marais des Cygnes the upper station had fewer channel catfish than the middle and lower stations. In the Neosho, populations were equally abundant both upstream and downstream. The habitat of channel catfish in streams has been discussed by Bailey and Harrison I found adults in various habitats throughout the stream, but [Pg ] most abundantly in moderately fast water at the lower and middle Neosho stations.

At the upper Neosho station where riffles are shallow, yearlings and two-year-olds were numerous in many of the small pools over rubble-gravel bottom. Cover was utilized where present, but large numbers were taken in pools devoid of cover. Young-of-the-year were nearly always taken from rubble- or gravel-riffles having moderate to fast current at both upstream and downstream stations. Collections showed that young of were abundant on riffles throughout the summer and until 17 November, Subsequent collections were not made until 11 May, , at which time class fish still were abundant on riffles at the lower Neosho station; on that date, the larger individuals were in deeper parts of the riffles than were smaller representatives of the same year-class.

In a later collection 2 June, , numbers present on the riffles were greatly reduced and the larger individuals were almost entirely missing. Some of the smaller individuals were still present in the shallower riffle areas. Table 7 compares sizes of the individuals obtained on 2 June with sizes collected from deep riffles at the middle Neosho station on 7 June, The larger size of the group present in deep riffles is readily apparent.

The yearlings almost completely disappeared from subsequent collections on riffles. A bimodal size-distribution of young-of-the-year was noted also in and ; but, no segregation of the two sizes occurred on riffles in summer. Marzolf recorded two peaks in spawning activity in Missouri ponds. Two spawning periods may account for the bimodal size distribution of young-of-the-year observed in my study. In , young-of-the-year began to appear in the latter part of June and became abundant by the first part of July. Individuals as small as one inch T.

Yearling individuals at the lower and middle Neosho stations showed a pronounced tendency to move into shallow, moderately fast water over rubble or gravel bottom at night, where they were nearly ten times more abundant than in daytime Table 9.

Adults probably have the same pattern of daily movement as yearlings, except that at night the adults move to deeper riffles. Bailey and Harrison demonstrated that channel catfish feed most actively from sundown to midnight. Channel catfish especially two-year-olds and adults were abundant on a rubble-riffle during the day in some collections at the lower Neosho station in Near the end of the spawning season in , I found spawning catfish at the lower Neosho station.

Ripe females were taken between 9 June and 30 June, ; and, on 19 June I found a channel catfish nest with eggs water temp. The nest-site was a hole in the base of a clay bank; the floor was clean gravel with a small mound of gravel at the entrance. The nest-opening, five to six inches in diameter, widened almost immediately into a chamber about two and one-half feet long and one foot wide.

Normally the water was about six inches deep in the mainstream as it ran over a riffle adjacent to the catfish nest. When I put my hand into the opening the fish bit vigorously, but became quiescent when I stroked its belly. I then felt the rounded gelatinous mass of eggs on the bottom of the nest. On June 22 water temp. The next day 23 June , water temp. The [Pg ] adult did not attempt to bite but left as soon as I put my hand into the hole. Marzolf reports that young remain in the nest from seven to eight days after hatching. My seining records show a marked increase in abundance of small young-of-the-year on the first of July.

Probably the time of hatching of the nest described above correlated well with hatches of other nests. One and sometimes two channel catfish were found in other holes in the stream-bank or bottom. The fish occasionally attacked my hand vigorously, but at other times remained quiet or left without attacking.

No other channel catfish eggs were found, although one hole under a rock in the middle of the river had one or two individuals in it each time it was checked until 11 July, A local fisherman informed me of his belief that these holes are occupied only in the spawning season. Observations that I made in a pond owned by Dr. Bryan of Erie indicated that channel catfish, when disturbed in the early stages of guarding the eggs, either eat the eggs and abandon the nest or leave the nest exposed to predation by other animals.

In the later stages of nesting, the fish, if removed, will return to guard the nest. After the eggs hatch the guarding response probably diminishes and the fish leaves the nest readily. At the lower Neosho station, several "artificial" holes were dug into the clay bank and two pieces of six-inch pipe were forced into the bank. Nearly all these holes were occupied by catfish for a short period in June; many of the holes were enlarged, either by the current or by fish.

I suspect that fish enlarged some holes, because in the spawning season several males were observed that had large abrasions atop their heads, around their lips, and to a lesser extent on their sides. These could have been caused by butting and scraping the sides, roof and floor of a hole. I found it possible to enlarge the holes by rapidly moving my hand while it was inside a hole. The growth-rate of channel catfish in the Neosho was approximately the same at all stations, and the large year-class grew to an average size of about nine inches by mid-September, Table 7.

Channel catfish mature at a total length of 12 to 15 inches. Thus, most individuals of the year-class in the Neosho River probably will mature in their fourth or fifth summer or spawning season. The sizes attained by young-of-the-year in differed in the [Pg ] two rivers. Six hundred and thirty-three young taken in the Marais des Cygnes River attained an average size of 4. Age was determined by length-frequency and verified by examining cross-sections of fin-spines from the larger individuals. One hundred and fifty young from the Neosho River averaged 3. Gross examination of the riffle-insect faunas indicated a larger standing crop in the Neosho than in the Marais des Cygnes River.

Thus, the slower growth of young channel catfish in the Neosho seemed not to be correlated with food supply. Bailey and Harrison found that young channel catfish in the Des Moines River, Iowa, fed almost exclusively on aquatic insect larvae. My observations indicate that this is true in the Neosho and Marais des Cygnes rivers also. Young produced in in the Neosho River attained an average total length of three inches by 26 August, and young produced in attained an average size of 3.

Both groups probably continued growth until October, and may have averaged four inches total length at that time. The and year-classes were much less abundant than were the young. Therefore, it seems likely that the growth of the young in the Neosho River was depressed because of crowding. The year-class was larger than the small year-class, thus conforming to a general expectation that strong year-classes will be followed by weak year-classes. Reproduction by channel catfish in seemed greater in the Neosho River than in the Marais des Cygnes River Table 10 ; this coincided with a greater change in volume of flow in the Neosho River than in the Marais des Cygnes River Tables The year-class seemed more crowded, and grew more slowly, in the Neosho than in the Marais des Cygnes River.

Yellow bullhead were taken only at the middle station on the Marais des Cygnes and upper station on the Neosho. The yellow bullhead is more restricted to streams than is the black bullhead. Both species decreased in abundance during a period of continuous flow to following drought at the upper Neosho station. Collections in '59 indicated an increase in average size. Of four individuals marked and released at the upper Neosho sta [Pg ] tion in , one was recaptured about three hours after being released. It had not moved from the area of release.

The black bullhead was abundant at the upper stations on each river, especially in backwaters having mud-bottom. The species was not taken in the mainstream of the lower and middle Neosho stations, but was taken at the middle Neosho station in a pond that is often flooded by the river. Although the fish was common or abundant in nearly all pools at the upper Neosho station, it was most abundant in one pool that had a bottom predominately of mud. At the middle Marais des Cygnes station, individuals were collected and fin-clipped on 8, 9 and 24 July Three of the 19 marked on 8 July were recaptured in the same area on 9 July.

The area was poisoned on 13 September, , and black bullhead were taken, none of which had been marked. In , 96 black bullhead were taken at the upper Neosho station five in Area 1 and 91 at the White Farm. In these collections, 25 were marked fin-clipped or dyed and six were recaptured. Four of the six had not left the area of capture one and two days after being released. The fifth fish recaptured was one of five individuals that had been displaced one pool downstream. When recaptured seven days later, this fish had moved upstream over two steep riffles two to three inches deep, 75 feet and feet long past the site of original capture to the next pool.

The sixth fish, marked at the same time but returned to the original pool, was recaptured nine days after original capture and had moved upstream over a long riffle two to three inches deep, feet long and a short riffle into the second pool above the original site of its capture. Rotenone was applied to a small. A sample of 60 bullhead averaged 4. These fish probably represented the year-class. The upper Neosho station had a large population of black bullhead, strongly dominated by fish less than four inches T.

Most were approximately [Pg ] two inches T. Growth, according to length-frequency, following restoration of stream-flow, shows a regular increase in length of this dominant year-class Fig. A scarcity of young, especially in and , is apparent in Fig. This may be due to the fact that a strong year-class usually is followed by one or several weak year-classes. However, it more probably reflects the fact that black bullhead are characteristically pond fish, and as such are not so well adapted to reproduction in flowing streams as are many other species.

Metcalf found this species most abundantly in the intermittent headwaters of Walnut River and Grouse Creek in Cowley County, Kansas. The flathead is the largest sport-fish occurring in Kansas. Several weighing more than 40 pounds are caught from streams each year, and the species reportedly attains sizes in excess of one hundred pounds. Several aspects of the biology of the flathead in Kansas have been discussed by Minckley and Deacon The abundance of flathead declined slightly from through , counting fish of all sizes.

This trend is attributable to a large hatch in ; the year-class strongly dominated the [Pg ] population throughout my study. Natural mortality in that year-class was compensated by increased average size of the individuals to six inches in autumn, , and 11 inches in autumn, The numbers of flathead caught at the upper stations on the Neosho and Marais des Cygnes rivers differed from the general trend in that the species was rare in and increased slightly by Flathead are most numerous in large streams, and in the drought they probably were almost extirpated from the headwaters.

After , continuous flow and increased volume of flow were accompanied by a gradual increase in numbers of flathead in the upstream parts of the two rivers. The species was most abundant at the middle and lower Neosho stations, where The habitat of the flathead varied with size of the individuals. Young-of-the-year inhabited swift riffles having rubble bottom; individuals four to 12 inches in total length were distributed throughout the stream; those more than 12 inches in total length were most commonly in pools in association with cover rocks, or drifts of fallen timber.

Male flathead mature at 15 to 18 inches total length, females at 18 to 20 inches. The spawning season in probably began in early June and extended to mid-July. I attempted to find spawning fish on 19 June and for one month thereafter. On 19 June nine holes were dug into a yard section of a clay bank adjacent to a long, shallow, rubble riffle. A flathead was first found in one of these holes on 22 June, and others were frequently found in this and one other hole until mid-July. Although channel catfish were often found in nearby holes, that species was never present in the two holes used by flatheads.

The holes occupied by flathead as well as those used by channel catfish characteristically had silt-free gravel bottoms and a ridge of clean gravel across the entrance. A nest containing a flathead and eggs was located on 11 July. In checking the hole I first put my foot into the entrance, then slowly advanced my hand into the hole, feeling along the bottom with my fingers until they entered the open mouth of a large catfish. I backed off slowly and then felt beneath the fish. The fish was directly above the egg-mass, seemingly touching the eggs with its belly. As I touched the front of the egg-mass the fish struck viciously, taking my entire fist into its mouth.

It continued striking until I removed my hand from the hole after obtaining a small [Pg ] sample of eggs, which proved to be in an early stage of development no vascularization evident. When the nest was checked again on 13 July the eggs and fish were gone. As in the case of channel catfish, I suspect that disturbance of a flathead in the early stages of guarding the nest results in destruction of the nest either by the guardian fish or by predation resulting from its absence.

The hole occupied by the above fish was one that I had dug seven to nine inches in diameter and extending two and one-half to three feet into the bank. At the time this fish occupied the hole its depth was approximately the same as originally, but the entrance had been enlarged to 14 inches in diameter, and the chamber widened to 32 inches.

The holes were checked later in the summer and all were heavily silted or had been undercut by action of the current. The number of flathead of catchable size was not reduced as severely during my study as was the number of large channel catfish. Flathead have a longer life-span than channel catfish; therefore, it is not surprising that, of flathead and channel catfish that survived the drought, a higher proportion of flathead persisted throughout the next three years, in which my study was made.

In drought, when fish were concentrated in residual pools, the piscivorous fish eating habit of flatheads may have favored their survival. The growth rate of flathead taken from the Neosho River in and was reported by Minckley and Deacon Individuals hatched in and and collected in had attained average sizes of 9. Flatheads of the and year-classes attained average sizes of 8. These data indicate that growth was retarded in the summer of Many species, including P.

Despite the great increase in amount of water, I suppose that young-of-the-year and yearlings were subjected to crowding resulting from exceptional hatches. This caused reduction in growth of young flathead, and probably in several other species. Food of flatheads 4. The stonecat was not taken at the upper Marais des Cygnes station, and was less abundant at the middle Marais des Cygnes station than at other stations.

The abundance of the stonecat was greatest at the lower Marais des Cygnes station in and at the upper Neosho station in The species increased in abundance from to in the Neosho River, where the principal habitat was riffles over rubble bottom. Thirty-three stonecats were marked at the upper Neosho station in Five of these were recaptured three hours after release, all near the point of release.

One individual was taken from a riffle, fin-clipped, and released at the foot of the next riffle downstream. When recaptured four days later, this fish was still in the area of release. Young-of-the-year were taken on July 1, , at the lower Neosho station. Trautman describes the habitat of the tadpole madtom as "low-gradient lowland streams, springs, marshes, oxbows, pothole lakes, and protected harbors and bays of Lake Erie, where conditions were relatively stable, the water was usually clear, the bottom was of soft muck which generally contained varying amounts of twigs, logs, and leaves, and where there usually was an abundance of such rooted aquatics as pondweeds and hornwort.

The species seemed to be highly intolerant to much turbidity and rapid silting, The occurrence provides the westernmost record station in Kansas. Cross and Minckley reported the species from the lower part of the Marais des Cygnes in Kansas. The freckled madtom was taken only at the middle Neosho station on 19 April, This species occurs most frequently in small streams, and individuals living in the mainstream of the Neo [Pg ] sho probably are "strays" from nearby tributaries. This species may have utilized the mainstream as a refugium in the drought of ' The slender madtom was taken only at the middle Marais des Cygnes station in the fall of This species prefers permanent riffles of clear streams Deacon and Metcalf, My specimen possibly strayed from a nearby tributary; or, it was a relict from a population living in the mainstream during drought.

A description of this species, which is endemic to Neosho River, has been prepared but not yet published by Dr. Ralph Taylor. I found the Neosho madtom only at the middle station in and , and at the lower station in , where the species was common in shallow water having moderate current over clean gravel bottom. Specimens were most effectively collected by digging into the gravel above the seine and allowing the gravel to wash into the seine.

In , Cross found this species in abundance in riffles at the confluence of the South Fork and Cottonwood River, and at several other localities in the Neosho mainstream personal communication. The Neosho madtom is nearly restricted to gravel riffles having moderate flow; therefore, it may be drastically reduced by intermittency of flow. I found none in and few in By , the third summer of continuous flow, the Neosho madtom was again common. The black-striped topminnow was rare in the mainstream at the lower Marais des Cygnes and the middle and lower Neosho stations, where it was found in quiet water near shore.

Let them be at the service of truth in such a way that the bonds between peoples may become yet closer; that they may have a more respectful understanding of each other; that they may assist each other in any crisis: that, finally, there may be real cooperative effort between the State officials and the individual citizens. To be at the service of the truth demands not only that all refrain from error, from lies, from deceit of all kinds, but also that they shun everything that can encourage a manner of living and acting which is false, imperfect, or harmful to another party.

But above all, let the truths, handed down by God's revelation, be held sacred and inviolable. Rather, why should not these noble arts strive particularly to this end, that they spread the teaching of God and of His Son, Jesus Christ, "and instil into minds that Christian truth which alone can provide the strength from above to the mass of men, aided by which they may be able with calmness and courage, to overcome the crises and endure the severe trials of the age in which we now live? Moreover, these new arts should not only serve the truth, but also the perfecting of human life and morals.

Let them make an active contribution to this in the three ways We are now going to write about: namely, in the news published, in the instruction imparted, in the shows presented. News of any event, even if nothing but the bare fact is related, has yet an aspect of its own which concerns morality in some way. The news-reader who worthily fulfils his task, should crush no one by his words, but try rather to understand and explain as best he can, the disasters reported and the crimes committed.

To explain is not necessarily to excuse; but it is to suggest the beginning of a remedy, and consequently, to perform a task at once positive and constructive". What We have just written has doubtless more force when it is a question of imparting instructions; documentary films, radio broadcasts, and television for schools provide ideas and open up new possibilities here, not only with regard to those who are still young, but also with regard to those of mature years. Yet every precaution must be taken that the instructions given are in no way contrary to the Church's teaching and its sacred rights, or impede or frustrate the proper duty of educating the young within the home circle.

Similarly, it is to be hoped that these new arts of publicity, whether exercised by private citizens or controlled by rulers of states, will not spread doctrines while suppressing all mention of God's name and taking no account of His divine law. However, We are fully aware, alas, that in some nations amid which atheistic Communism is rampant, these methods of telecommunication are directed in the schools to root out all religious ideas from the mind.

Indeed, anyone who considers this situation calmly and without prejudice, cannot fail to see that the consciences of children and youths, deprived of divine truth, are being oppressed in a new and subtle way, since they are unable to learn that truth revealed by God, which, as our Redeemer declared, makes us free; 28 and that by this cunning method a new attack is being made on religion. But We earnestly desire, Venerable Brethren, that these technical instruments, by which eyes and ears are easily and pleasantly attracted to events happening far away, should be employed to a particular end, namely, to provide men with a broader cultural background in the knowledge necessary for the fulfilment of their duties, and above all, in Christian principles.

If these principles are neglected, there can be no progress worthy of the name, even in merely human matters. Further, it must be noted that, apart from the published news and the instructions delivered, these new arts can contribute considerably towards the true good of men by shows as well. The progammes have generally something which has reference not only to entertaining men and giving them news, but also to the training of their minds.

With complete justice, then, Our predecessor of happy memory, Pius XI, called the film theatres the "schools of events"; 30 for they can be called schools in this sense, that the dramatic plot is joined with scenes in which the vivid pictures which are portrayed by the moving light, are synchronised with sounds of voices and music in a most fascinating manner, with the result that they reach not only the intelligence and other faculties, but the whole man, and, in some way, link him to themselves, and seem to sweep him into a participation in the plot presented.

Although the arts of the Motion Pictures, Radio and Television include, in some fashion, various types of spectacle already long in use, yet each expresses a new product, and thus a new kind of spectacle which is aimed not at a few chosen spectators, but at vast throngs of men, who differ among themselves in age, way of life and culture.

In order, then, that, in such conditions, shows of this kind may be able to pursue their proper object, it is essential that the minds and inclinations of the spectators be rightly trained and educated, so that they may not only understand the form proper to each of the arts, but also be guided, especially in this matter, by a right conscience. Thus they will be enabled to practise mature consideration and judgment on the various items which the film or television screen puts before them, and not, as very frequently happens, be lured and arbitrarily swept away by the power of their attraction.

If there is lacking this mental training and formation, enlightened by Christian teaching, then neither reasonable pleasures which "everyone readily admits are necessary for all who are involved in the business and troubles of life", 31 nor the progress of mental development can be kept safe. The sound policy of Catholics who have encouraged, especially in recent years, the need to educate the spectators in this way, is most praiseworthy; and several plans have been launched which aim at making both youths and grown-ups willing to examine adequately and competently the benefits and the dangers of these shows, and give a balanced decision on them.

This, however, should not provide an excuse for attending shows which are contrary to right morals; rather, it ought to lead to pointing out and choosing those only which are in accord with the Church's commandments on the grounds of religion and of the moral law, and which follow the instructions issued by the ecclesiastical Offices in this matter.

Provided these plans, in accordance with Our hopes, correspond to pedagogical principles and right rules of mental development, We not only give them Our approval, but also heartily commend them ; and thus We desire them to be introduced into every type of school, Catholic Action groups, and parish societies. Right training and education of the spectators in this fashion will ensure, on the one hand, a lessening of the dangers which can threaten harm to morals ; and, on the other hand, permit Christians, through the new knowledge they acquire, to raise their minds to a contemplation of heavenly truths.

While speaking on this point, We desire to praise in a particular manner those preachers of the divine word who make right use also of the means provided by Motion Pictures, Radio and Television to this end. They are aware that they are in duty bound to preserve the integrity of morals of those peoples to whom they minister and lead towards the path of truth ; and thus they share with them the genuinely salutary benefits and inventions which our times have introduced.

We therefore desire that those who wield authority, either in Church or State, should in a special way support the activity and enterprise of these preachers. Yet it must be noticed that, in exercising control in this matter, the right training and education of the spectators, of which We have spoken, is not in itself sufficient.

Each of the shows must be suited and adapted to the degree of intelligence of each age, the strength of their emotional and imaginative response, and the condition of their morals.

This, indeed, assumes a very great importance because sound radio and television shows, since they easily penetrate right into the domestic circle, threaten to undermine the protective barriers by which the education of the young must be kept safe and sound until such time as advancing age gives the necessary strength to enable them to overcome the buffetings of the world.

For this reason, three years ago, We wrote thus to the Bishops of Italy: "Should we not shudder if we reflect attentively that by means of television shows, even within home surroundings all can inhale that poisoned air of "materialistic" doctrines which diffuse notions of empty pleasures and desires of all kinds, in the same way as they did over and over again in cinema halls?

We are aware of the initiatives which have been encouraged not only by public authorities but also by private groups who are engaged in the education of youth; We mean those undertakings and plans by which they make every possible effort to withdraw young people from those shows which are unsuited to their age, though they are too often being attended, with resulting serious harm. Whatever is being done in this praiseworthy cause, We heartily approve; yet it must be noticed that, even more than the physiological and psychological disturbances which can arise therefrom, those dangers must be guarded against which affect the morals of youth, and which, unless turned aside and forbidden in due season, can greatly contribute to the damage and overthrow of human society itself.

Concerning this matter, We make a father's appeal to the young so dear to Us, trusting that - since it is a question of entertainment in which their innocence can be exposed to danger - they will be outstanding for their Christian restraint and prudence. It is their grave obligation to check and control that natural and unrestrained eagerness to see and hear anything ; and they must keep their mind free from immodest and earthly pleasures and direct it to higher things.

Since the Church knows well that, from these new arts which directly affect the eye and ear, very many benefits as well as very many evils and dangers can arise, according as men make use of them, She desires to perform her duty in this matter also - in so far as it concerns directly, not culture in general, but religion in particular and the direction and control of morals.

With a view to carrying out this task more fittingly and easily, Our predecessor of immortal memory, Pius XI, declared and proclaimed that "it is absolutely essential for Bishops to set up a permanent National Office of supervision whose business it would be to encourage decent films, but to give to others a recognised classification, and then to publish their judgment and make it known to priests and faithful"; 34 and that it was necessary, he added, that all Catholic initiative with regard to the Motion Pictures be directed to an honourable end.

In several countries, the Bishops, with these directives before their eyes, decided to set up Offices of this kind not only for matters connected with Motion Pictures, but also for Radio and Television. As We consider, then, the spiritual advantages which can spring from these technical arts, together with the need to protect the integrity of Christian morals which such entertainments can easily endanger, We desire that, in every country, if the Offices referred to do not already exist, they be established without delay; these are to be entrusted to men skilled in the use of these arts, with some priest, chosen by the Bishops, as adviser.

Moreover, Venerable Brethren, We urge that in each country, these Offices dealing with Motion Pictures, or Radio or Television should depend on one and the same Committee, or at least, act in close cooperation. At the same time, We urge the faithful, particularly those who are vigorous members of Catholic Action, to be suitably instructed so that they may perceive the need to give willingly to these Offices their united and effective support. And since there are a number of questions on this subject not capable of easy explanation and solution in individual countries, it will certainly be very useful if the National Offices of each country unite into an International Association to which this Holy See, after due consideration, will be able to give approval.

We have no doubt, Venerable Brethren, that you will produce fruitful and salutary results from what you will do, at some cost in toil and inconvenience, to obey these directives. But the result will be more easily and aptly attained if the particular rules, which We are going to set out in the course of this Encyclical Letter with regard to the Motion Pictures, Radio and Television separately considered, are carefully put into practice.

Motion Pictures, which came into existence some sixty years ago, must today be numbered among the most important means by which the ideas and discoveries of our times can be made known. Concerning their various processes and their power of attraction, We have, when occasion offered, already spoken. Hence, in order that the cinema may remain a worthy instrument by which men can be guided towards salvation, raised to higher things, and become really better, 36 it is absolutely necessary for each of those groups just referred to, exercising a true sense of responsibility, to cooperate readily with each other to produce and distribute films which can win approval.

To all those who practise vigilance and act intelligently concerning film shows, We have already more than once made clear the seriousness of the subject, while exhorting them to produce, in particular, the kind of "ideal film" which can certainly contribute to a well balanced education. Do you, Venerable Brethren, take a special interest in seeing that, through the individual National Offices, which must be subject to your authority, and about which We have written above, there shall be imparted to the various classes of interested citizens information on the matters to be viewed, - the advice and the directives by which, in accordance with the different times and circumstances, this most noble art, which can so much help the good of souls, may be as far as possible advanced.

For this purpose, "let tables or lists be composed and printed in a definite arrangement, in which films distributed will, as frequently as possible, be listed so as to come to the notice of all"; 38 and let this be done by a Committee of reliable men, which will depend on each of your National Offices. These men, of course, should be outstanding for their doctrine and practical prudence since they have to pass judgment on each film according to the rules of Christian morality.

We most earnestly exhort the members of this Committee to devote in a suitable manner to these topics, deep and prolonged study and devout prayer; for they have to deal with a most important matter which is closely bound up with the Christian concept of life, and consequently,they must have a sound knowledge of that power which is exerted by the cinema, and which varies according to the different circumstances of the spectators. As often as they have to judge the moral aspect of a cinema programme, they should attentively revise within themselves those directives already many times given by Us, as occasion offered; and particularly when We spoke of the "ideal film", of the points which concern religion, and at the same time of representation of evil deeds: it should never ignore or be opposed to human dignity, to the modesty of the home surroundings, to holiness of life, to the Church of Jesus Christ, to human and civil types of association.

Moreover, let them remember that the task allowed to them of classifying and passing judgment on each film programme, aims especially at giving clear and appropriate guidance to public opinion, with the intention of leading all to value highly the rules and principles of morality, without which the right development of minds and true civilization become meaningless terms. Unquestionably, therefore, one must repudiate the manner of acting of those who, from excessive indulgence, admit films which, for all their technical brilliance, nevertheless offend right morals; or, though they appear on the surface to conform to the moral laws, yet contain something which is contrary to the Catholic Faith.

But if they have clearly and publicly indicated which films can be seen by all, by the young, by adults; and those, on the other hand, which are a moral danger to the spectators; and finally, those which are entirely bad and harmful, then each will be able to attend those films only, from which "they will come out with minds happier, freer and better"; 39 and they will be able to avoid those which can be harmful to them, and doubly so, of course, when they will have been a means of gain for traffickers in evil things, and given bad example to others.

Repeating the timely instructions which Our predecessor of happy memory, Pius XI, published in his Encyclical Letter, entitled Vigilanti Cura , 40 We earnestly desire that Christians be not only warned with care, as frequently as possible, on this topic, but that they fulfil the grave obligation of acquainting themselves with the decisions issued by Ecclesiastical Authority on matters connected with Motion Pictures, and of faithfully obeying them.

The Bishops, if they deem it appropriate, will be able to set aside a special day each year devoted to this matter, on which the faithful will be carefully instructed concerning their duty, particularly with regard to Film shows, and urged to offer earnest prayers to God about the same. To make it easy for all to be familiar with these decisions and to obey them, these directives, together with a short commentary on them, must be published at some suitable time, and distributed as widely as possible.

To this end, Catholic Film critics can have much influence; they ought to set the moral issue of the plots in its proper light, defending those judgments which will act as a safeguard against falling into so-called "relative morality", or the overthrow of that right order in which the lesser issues yield place to the more important. Quite wrong, therefore, is the action of writers in daily papers and in reviews, claiming to be Catholic, if, when dealing with shows of this kind, they do not instruct their readers concerning the moral position to be adopted.

There is a duty of conscience binding the spectators who, each time they buy a ticket of admission, - as it were casting a vote - make choice of good or bad motion pictures; a similar duty, and even more so, binds those who manage movie theatres or distribute the films. We are well aware of the magnitude of the difficulties which today confront those engaged in the Motion Picture industry because of - in addition to other considerations - the great increase in the use of television.

Yet, even when confronted by these difficult circumstances, they must remember that they are forbidden in conscience to present film programmes which are contrary to the Faith and sound morals, or to enter into contracts by which they are forced to present shows of this kind. But since in many countries, men engaged in this industry have bound themselves not to exhibit, for any consideration, film programmes which might be harmful or evil, We trust that the excellent initiative will spread to all parts of the world, and that no catholic in cinema management will hesitate to follow such sane and salutary proposals.

We must also utter a vigorous warning against the display of commercial posters which ensnare or give scandal, even though, as sometimes happens, such publicity refers to decent films. Consequently, in cinema halls subject to ecclesiastical authority, since there have to be provided for the faithful, and particularly for the young, shows which are suitable to upright training and in keeping with the surroundings, it is clear that only those films may be exhibited which are entirely beyond reproach.

Let the Bishops, keeping a watchful eye on these halls, - including those of exempt religious, - to which the public has access, warn all ecclesiastics on whom the responsibility falls, to observe faithfully and exactly the rules laid down in these matters, and let them not be too much taken up with their personal advantage if they wish to play their part in this ministry which the Holy See considers of the highest importance.

We especially advise those who control these Catholic halls, to group themselves together - as, with Our full approval and consent, has been done in a number of places - the more effectively to put into practice the recommendations of the respective National Offices, and support common advantages and policies. The counsel which We have given to theatre managers We wish to apply also to the distributors who, since they sometimes contribute financially to the making of the actual films, have obviously a greater opportunity and, consequently, are bound by a more serious obligation, of giving their support to reputable films.

For distribution cannot be in any sense reckoned as a technical function of the business, since films - as We have often stated - are not only to be regarded as articles for sale, but also, and this is more important, to be considered as food for the mind and, as it were, a means of spiritual and moral training for the ordinary people.

So distributors and hirers share to the same degree in merit and responsibility according as something good or evil results from the screen. Since, therefore, there is question of bringing the Motion Picture industry into line with sounder policies, that is no slight responsibility which rests on the actors; they, indeed, remembering their dignity as human beings and as experienced artists, should know that they are not permitted to lend their talents to parts in plays, or to be connected with the making of films, which are contrary to sound morals. But an actor, having gained a famous name by his talent and skill, ought to use that renown which he has justly won in such a way that he inspires the mind of the public with noble sentiments; in particular, he should remember to give a notable example of virtue to others in his private life.

When addressing professional actors on one occasion in the past, We made this assertion: "Everyone can see that, in the presence of a throng of people listening open-mouthed to your words, appauding and shouting, your own feelings are stirred and filled with a certain joy and exaltation". But the heaviest responsibility - though for a different reason - falls on the directors and producers.

The awareness of this burden is not an obstacle to noble undertakings, but rather ought to strengthen the minds of those who, endowed with good will, are influential by reason of their money or natural talent in the production of films. In addition, it often happens that film producers and directors meet a serious difficulty when the circumstances and demands of their art come into contact with the precepts of religion and the moral law.

In that case, before the film is printed, or while it is being produced, some competent advice should be sought and a sound plan adopted to provide for both the spiritual good of the spectators and the perfection of the work itself. Let these men not hesitate to consult the local established Catholic Motion Pictures Office, which will readily come to their assistance by delegating some qualified ecclesiastical adviser to look after the business, should this be necessary, and so long as due precautions are observed.

And the result of this confidence which they place in the Church, will not be a lessening of their authority or popularity; "for the Faith, until the end of time, will be the bulwark of the human person" 44 and in the production of the works themselves, the human person will be enriched and perfected in the light of Christian teaching and correct moral principles. Nevertheless, ecclesiastics are not permitted to offer their cooperation to film directors without the express consent of their superiors, since, obviously, to give sound advice in this matter, special excellence in the art and a more than ordinary training are essential, and a decision on these cannot be left to the whim of individuals.

We therefore give a fatherly warning to Catholic film directors and producers, not to permit films to be made which are opposed to the Faith or Christian morals; but if, - which God forbid - this should happen, it is the duty of the Bishops to admonish them, and, if necessary, to impose appropriate sanctions. But We are convinced that, to bring the Motion Pictures to the heights of the "ideal film", nothing is more effective than for those engaged in film production to act in conformity with the commandments of Christian law. Let those responsible for making films approach the sources from which all the highest gifts flow, let them master the Gospel teaching, and make themselves familiar with the Church's traditional doctrine on the certainties of life, on happiness and virtue, on sorrow and sin, on body and soul, on social problems and human desires; they will then obtain new and excellent plots which they may adopt, and they will feel themselves inspired by a fresh enthusiasm to produce works of lasting value.

Those initiatives and practices, therefore, must be encouraged and extended by which their spiritual life is nourished, and given strength and development; but particular attention must here be paid to the christian training of those young people who are planning to enter the cinema world professionally. To conclude these instructions with regard to the Motion Pictures, We urge State officials not on any account to lend support to the production or making available of films of a low type, but, by establishing suitable regulations, to lend their aid to the providing of decent film programmes which can be commended, particularly when they are intended for youth.

When such large sums are being spent on public education, let them direct their attention to this also: that reasonable assistance be given to this matter, which is essentially a part of education. But since in certain countries, and also in international festivals, prizes are established and rightly awarded to those films which are recommended for their educative and spiritual value, We trust that all good and prudent men, following Our counsels, will strive to ensure that the applause and approval of the general public will not be wanting, as a prize for really worthwhile films.

No less carefully do We desire to express to you, Venerable Brethren, the anxiety which besets Us with regard to that other means of communication which was introduced at the same period as the cinema: We refer to Radio. Though it is not endowed to anything like the same extent with scenic properties and other advantages of time and place, as is the cinema industry, sound radio has yet other advantages, not all of which have yet been exploited.

For, as We said to the members and directors of a broadcasting company, "this method of comunication is such that it is, as it were, detached from and unrestricted by conditions of place and time which block or delay all other methods of communication between men.

On a kind of winged flight much swifter than sound waves, with the speed of light, it passes in a moment over all frontiers, and delivers the news committed to it". Brought to almost complete perfection by new inventions, wireless telegraphy brings oustanding advantages to technical processes, since, by means of a ray, pilotless machines may be directed to a determined place. But We rightly think that the most excellent function which falls to Radio is this: to enlighten and instruct men, and to direct their minds and hearts towards higher and spiritual things. But there is in men, though they may be within their own homes, a deep desire to listen to other men, to obtain knowledge of events happening far away, and to share in aspects of the social and cultural life of others.